Treatise on the Biblical Calendar, second edition (abbreviated TBC2) by Herb Solinsky (c) April 3, 2009

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[1] Preface
[2] Goals of this Study and the applied Philosophy to attain these Goals
[3] Cognate Words in Ancient Semitic Languages to aide Hebrew
[4] Disguised Confusing Footnote in the Brown-Driver-Briggs Lexicon
[5] Introduction to Ancient Calendars and Ancient Astronomy
[6] Ellipses and Orbits of Heavenly Bodies
[7] Astronomical New Moon (Conjunction) and Full Moon
[8] Variation from Astronomical New Moon to Full Moon; Variation from New Crescent to Full Moon
[9] Ancient Meaning of the Full Moon
[10] When in History did Prediction of the Astronomical New Moon Begin?
[11] Transmission of Babylonian Astrology-Astronomy to other Peoples
[12] Egyptian Astronomical Science before Alexander the Great
[13] Did Abraham teach Mathematical Astronomy to the Egyptians?
[14] Did Ancient Israel Excel in Advanced Mathematical Astronomy?
[15] Authority of the Levitical Priesthood from the Tanak

(A) The Levitical Priesthood has a Role regarding the Calendar
(B) Anointing Oil is Symbolic of Authority upon Aaronic Priests
(C) The Origin and Exclusiveness of the Aaronic Priesthood
(D) Punishment by Death for Usurping the Domain of the Aaronic Priesthood
(E) The Teaching Authority Given to the Levitical Priesthood.
(F) Ps 133 shows Calendric Unity via the Authority of the Aaronic Priesthood
(G) People involved in Israel's Governance before the Babylonian Exile
(H) The Mishnah and the Great Sanhedrin
(I) History of Disruption and Restoration of the Levitical Priesthood
(J) Authority of the Levitical Priesthood Recognized in the New Testament

[16] Control of the Temple, and thus the Calendar, in the Early First Century

(A) Primary Sources of History in the early First Century
(B) Branches of Modern Judaism relate to evidence on this Issue
(C) The New Testament as a Primary Source
(D) Many of the Scribes were Sadducees. Mat 23:2 and Moses' Seat
(E) Sanhedrin in the New Testament
(F) The Parable of the Wicked Vinedressers
(G) How the High Priest Spoke to the Audience that included the Pharisees
(H) Pilate's Understanding of the Chief Priests’ Authority
(I) The Role of Gamaliel
(J) Legal Authority of the Chief Priests
(K) Conclusion from the New Testament
(L) The Roman Historian Tacitus
(M) The Roman Historian Pompeius Trogus

[17] Appointed-times and Years are known from Lights in the Sky
[18] A Month is a Cycle of the Moon
[19] Full Moon occurs about the 14th and 15th Days of the Biblical Month
[20] A Biblical Month is a Whole Number of Days
[21] A Biblical Month has a Maximum of 30 Days
[22] The Sun and Moon are the Primary Lights in Gen 1:14
[23] Blowing two Silver Trumpets on the Day that Begins each Month
[24] Hebrew chodesh refers to the Day that Begins each Month
[25] Isaiah 47:13, Astrologers, the Zodiac, and the meaning of chodesh
[26] The Biblical New Moon relates to the Sighting of the New Crescent
[27] Philo of Alexandria and the Jewish New Moon in the First Century
[28] Did the Jews use Calculation for their Calendar in the First Century?
[29] The Biblical Year is a Whole number of Biblical Months, 12 or 13
[30] The Beginning of the Month and I Samuel 20
[31] Applying I Sam 20 to II Kings 4:23 and Amos 8:5
[32] Rapid Communication to inform the Nation about the New Moon
[33] Summary about the New Moon Celebration and the Role of the Daytime
[34] Today’s Ambiguity in the Phrase New Moon
[35] Month Start Theories from Ps 81:3 and the double word b-keseh

(A) Three Translations of Ps 81:3
(B) Three Theories from Ps 81:3
(C) Discussion of Theory A (Full is Fifteenth)
(D) Discussion of Theory B (Full is New)
(E) Discussion of Theory C (New is Conjunction)
(F) Can keseh in Ps 81:3 be the verb kasah (3680)?

[36] The Noun keseh in Ps 81:3 means the Approximate Full Moon
[37] Biblical View of the Sun's Yearly Motion is South - North
[38] The South - North Yearly Cycle indicated in Eccl 1:6A
[39] Equinox and Solstice is in the Bible
[40] Equal Daytime and Nighttime is Not the Biblical Equinox
[41] The Vernal Equinox and Ex 12:2
[42] Karl Schoch’s Curve for Predicting Visibility of the New Crescent
[43] Ezra and Nehemiah in Relation to the Vernal Equinox and the Babylonian Calendar [44] Nisan and the Jews at Elephantine, Egypt
[45] Gen 1:14; Ezra 6:15; Neh 6:15 Show the Vernal Equinox Starts the Year
[46] The Zodiac and the Sign of Aries
[47] Philo explains when the First Month of the Biblical Year begins
[48] Declaration of the Vernal Equinox in Ancient Israel
[49] Saadia Gaon and the Origin of the Modern Jewish Calendar
[50] The International Date Line, the Sabbath, and the New Moon
[51] How the MCJC achieves Spiritual Unity using the IDL
[52] Avoiding Confusion and Disunity (Ps 133:1)
[53] Dwelling in Spiritual Unity Through the Declaration of the Priesthood
[54] Does Deut 16:1 Command Everyone to Look for the New-Moon?
[55] Ancient Israel did not Practice Local Visibility
[56] Confusion of a Difference of a Whole Month in the Calendar
[57] The Role of the Land of Israel
[58] The Boundary of Israel
[59] The law will go forth from Zion - Isaiah 2:3 and Micah 4:2
[60] Two Days for the Start of the Seventh Month
[61] What if the Whole Earth may Sight the Crescent to start the Month?
[62] The Ancient Situation Outside of Israel
[63] Modern Technology makes a difference
[64] Num 10:10 Avoids Confusion
[65] Differences between the Sabbath and the New Moon
[66] Does the spread of saints around the world change the calendar?
[67] Historical Evidence for Sighting the New Crescent
[68] Should only Jerusalem be used to Sight the New Crescent?
[69] Starting the Month when it comes to you
[70] Actual Sighting from Israel Today
[71] The Process of Declaring the New Moon
[72] Two Web Sites with New Crescent Reports from Israel
[73] Authority in Israel Distorted by Josephus

(A) Josephus on the Biblical Court System and the Biblical King
(B) Resolving Contradictions in Josephus over who had greater Authority
(C) General Conclusions about Josephus

[74] Josephus and his Aries Approximation
[75] Destruction of the Temple April 3, 2009 3
[76] The Easter Calendar Deception from Josephus
[77] Introduction to aviv and chodesh ha aviv
[78] Genetics of Barley
[79] Stages in the Development of an Ear of Barley
[80] Firstfruits and the Hebrew words bikurim and raysheet
[81] Meaning of Lev 2:14-16 which contains aviv
[82] Southern border of Ancient Egypt when the Israelites were Slaves [83] Introduction to the Plague of Hail and Ex 9:31-32
[84] Winter Grain, Agriculture, and Rainfall in Ancient Egypt
[85] Smith's Paper and Ears of Winter Barley in Egypt
[86] Lewis' Book and Ears of Winter Barley in Egypt
[87] Hartmann's Book and Ears of Winter Barley in Egypt
[88] Pliny the Elder and Ears of Winter Barley and Wheat in Egypt
[89] Ending of Ex 9:32
[90] Conclusions on the Time of the Hail and the Meaning of aviv
[91] Time of the Barley Harvest in Israel
[92] Comparison of Barley Harvest in Egypt and in Israel
[93] Lack of Applying aviv to Ex 12:2
[94] Gen 1:14 is a Cause and Effect Verse with Light, not Heat
[95] Septuagint’s Translation of aviv
[96] Meaning of aviv from the Mishnah
[97] Ambiguity of Identifying the Month of aviv from the word aviv
[98] Josh 5:10-12 and the Date of the Wave Sheaf Offering
[99] Meaning of omer for Sheaf and its State of Development
[100] Wave Sheaf Offering
[101] How the Wave Sheaf was Obtained
[102] More Comments on the Time of Early Ripe Barley in Israel
[103] Can the Barley Harvest begin before the Wave Sheaf Offering?
[104] The Meaning of Deut 16:1
[105] The First Month During the 40 Years of Wandering in the Wilderness
[106] Indirect Interpretation of Gen 1:14 and the Jews in Rome
[107] History of the Karaites
[108] Issues Against the Position that Barley Determines the First Month
[109] Epilogue

(A) Condensed Summary
(B) Summary of the Biblical Calendar from Scripture

[110] About the Author
[111] Appendix A: Yohanan ben Zakkai and the Sadducees
[112] Appendix B: Rabbinic Literature and History

(A) Conflict of Interest in the Lineage of the Author of the Mishnah
(B) Can the Talmudic Concept of the Oral Law be Historically True?
(C) Summary of some Reasons for Lack of Reliability in the Historical accuracy of the Mishnah
(D) Talmudic Decisions on the Calendar by the Gamaliel’s and Simon
(E) Modern Conservative Jewish Views concerning Rabbinic Literature

[113] Appendix C: Nisanu 1 in the Babylonian Calendar Compared to the Vernal Equinox during the Century of Ezra and Nehemiah
[114] Appendix D: Karl Schoch's Table for Visibility of the New Crescent
[115] Appendix E: Time from Sunrise to Sunset to compare with the Vernal Equinox
[116] Appendix F: Comparing the Sighting of the New Crescent with MCJC
[117] Appendix G: Smith's Paper
[118] Bibliography

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