[5] Introduction to Ancient Calendars and Ancient Astronomy

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In modern times much has been discovered about ancient calendars generally, especially with the help of applying the computer and astronomy software to ancient records in order to sift out conjecture from fact. During the 20th century many volumes of ancient astronomical records were translated and published. These have been studied in detail, and an improved history of ancient mathematical astronomy has been erected, especially since the Akkadian language of Assyria and of the priests of Babylonia was first deciphered in the late 1800's and archaeological discoveries were translated.

It is unfortunate that such information is not readily available in every small town library or on the Internet without cost. Recent research is copyrighted and may not be legally reproduced on the Internet for free or without permission. Thus the person who desires to study such matters today is very greatly handicapped by either living far away from research libraries, or even when only 50 miles away, a major effort must be made to fight one's way through congested traffic many times over a period of years to become familiar with the available literature. Sometimes an innocent unsuspecting person may come to a premature conclusion about the biblical calendar and then writes with conviction, thus leading other innocent ones into conclusions that would not stand up among learned people. Other people are not so innocent because they have a bias against all ideas contrary to the modern calculated Jewish calendar. Such bias often leads those to throw dust and smoke into the air and attempt to cause confusion among others who really seek genuine biblical understanding.

Since the calendar is linked to the astronomy of the sun, earth, and moon, it is important to discuss this early to define certain technical terms and to ensure that irrational and erroneous thoughts about astronomy are avoided.